MHG13496 - Broch etc, Crosskirk Bay
No summary available.
Type and Period (1)
- BROCH (CULTURE 100; CULTURE 199; , Early Iron Age to Early Medieval - 550 BC to 1057 AD)
Delete - relink to ND07SW0004
ND07SW 4 0248 7012.
(ND 0248 7112) Broch (NR) (rems of) OS 1:10,000 map, (1975)
The broch at Crosskirk Bay, Reay, has an internal diameter of approximately 30-32ft and a wall 14-15ft thick. It has been broken into from S, where there appears to have been an entrance to the left of which the sides of a chamber are visible in the wall. At the edge of the cliff, some 20ft of wall about 4-5ft high is exposed. On the landward side about 10ft from the broch are the remains of an outer bank or wall, now some 8ft wide at the base.
RCAHMS 1911; H Dryden 1871 (Soc of Antiqs Ms No. 21)
A rectangular symbol stone, 2ft 3ins high and 2ft 2ins wide, a facsimile of which is at Thurso Castle, is said to have been found at this broch and to have been given to the King of Denmark by Sir George Sinclair.
J R Allen and J Anderson 1903; J Stuart 1856.
This broch survives as a grass-covered circular enclosure, 1.1m max height internally. Traces of the outer wall face, 1.5m max height, are exposed in SW, and in N where the cliff edge has eroded. There thickness of the wall is 5.5m. There is no evidence of original entrance but it may have been in S where the feature has been mutilated by excavation. Around E periphery of the broch there is a shallow depression, and on SW side a bank, 0.5m max height, may have formed part of the outer defences.
No further info could be found regarding symbol stone found here.
Resurveyed at 1:2500. Visited by OS (N K B) 28 October 1964.
This broch was excavated by Dr H Fairhurst and Mr D Taylor between 1966 and 1972. The wall survived to a max height of about 2m internally, and contained a rock-cut well. A rock-cut ditch encircled tower, and the area between ditch and broch was fully occupied by secondary domestic structures. At conclusion of the excavation broch was buldozed over edge of cliff, and nothing remains of it or the outworks apart from some walling in the cliff face. A modern cairn marks the site.
A full excavation report is pending.
Visited by OS (N K B) 13 November 1981; Info R B Gourlay, Highland Region Archaeologist.
The remains of this broch, unsafe through coastal erosion, was excavated by Fairhurst and Taylor from 1966 to 1972 on behalf of DoE, before being demolished, earthed over and seeded with grass. Excavation revealed evidence of a secondary settlement within an outwork on E, and an extension of entrance passage east-wards, part of which was converted,in last stages of occupation, into a souterrain. The outwork commenced in E in front of broch entrance, as a wall 15'thick with an earth core. Further to W where bedrock came near the surface, outwork continued as a terrace-like feature with a 'cell-like' structure behind. In front was a ditch, largely natural, which was 3m deep. In extreme W fence of flag-stones seems to have completed the defences. One of final episodes in occupation of the site was a burial in the centre of a roughly circular dwelling. The body had been placed in a sitting position and was unaccompanied by grave-goods. As well as native pottery, bonework, querns, etc., finds included 2nd century Samian and a fragment of possibly Roman glass, now in NMAS.
H Fairhurst, D B Taylor and A Morrison 1966; H Fairhurst 1969; H Fairhurst and D B Taylor 1970; 1971; 1972.
Bronze spiral finger-rings. E W MacKie 1971
Evidence of occupation as late as the 8th century was found during the excavations. E W MacKie 1975.
Scheduled with adjacent chapel (ND07SW 1).
Information from Historic Scotland, scheduling document dated 30 June 1995.
Class I symbol stone (lost) showed a crescent and V-rod and a horseshoe.
A.Mack 1997 p.141
Note; Unpublished research by David Henry of Pinkfoot Press indicates that the symbol stone, now lost, was discovered in a broch at Sibster near Halkirk and not at Crosskirk. See MHG39853 (T.Blackie 19/12/18)
Excavation of the site was published in 1984. For radiocarbon dates, see this monograph. <1>
Two radiocarbon dates were obtained an published as part of the Human Remains from Iron Age Atlantic Scotland Dating Project 2009. These indicated Late Iron Age/Pictish dates of 210-260 AD and 340-440 AD, calibrated to 1 sigma. <2>
A radiocarbon date from an adult female bone from burial 1 at this site was obtained and published in 2016 for the GENSCOT Ancient DNA project. This indicated a Pictish date of 595-644 AD, calibrated to 1 sigma. <3>
See link below to the Scottish Radiocarbon Database for selected radio carbon dates.
Finds from the the excavation at Crosskirk are in the Hunterian Museum and are listed in their online catalogue (Acc. No. GLAHM:A.1979.3-501). These comprise some 500 finds. See link below. <4>
- <1> Text/Publication/Monograph: Fairhurst, H. 1984. Excavations at Crosskirk broch, Caithness. Soc Antiq Scot Monograph Ser. 3.
- <2> Text/Publication/Article: Tucker, F and Armit. A. 2009. Human Remains from the Iron Age Atlantic Scotland Dating Project: Results obtained during 2009. Discovery and Excavation in Scotland 2009. 214-216. Paper (Copy). pg 213.
- <3> Text/Publication/Article: Sheridan. A, et al. 2016. Radiocarbon Dates Obtained for the GENSCOT Ancient DNA Project, 2016. Discovery and Excavation in Scotland. 195-198. Paper (Copy). pg 197.
- <4> Interactive Resource/Online Database: Hunterian Museum. 2020. Hunterian Museum Online Collections Catalogue. (Acc. No. GLAHM:A.1979.3-501.
|Grid reference||Centred ND 0248 7012 (70m by 70m) (Buffered by site type)|
- VESSEL (Undated)
- QUERN (Undated)
- UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Undated)
- VESSEL (Undated)
- UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Undated)
- HUMAN REMAINS (Undated)
Related Monuments/Buildings (3)
Related Investigations/Events (1)
External Links (4)
- http://collections.gla.ac.uk/ (Link to online Hunterian Museum Catalogue search)
- http://portal.historicenvironment.scot/designation/SM90086 (Online designation description (Historic Environment Scotland))
- https://canmore.org.uk/c14index/8019 (Link to Scottish Radiocarbon Database)
- https://canmore.org.uk/site/8019 (View RCAHMS Canmore entry for this site)
Comments and Feedback
Do you have any more information about this record? Please feel free to comment with information and photographs, or ask any questions, using the "Disqus" tool below. Comments are moderated, and we aim to respond/publish as soon as possible.