MHG3693 - Old Inverness Castle - Castlehill, Inverness

Summary

No summary available.

Type and Period (2)

  • CASTLE (Early Medieval to 19th Century - 561 AD to 1900 AD)
  • MOTTE AND BAILEY (Medieval - 1058 AD to 1559 AD)

Protected Status

  • None recorded

Full Description

Castle {NR} (Ruin)
OS 25"map, (1868)

The castle of Inverness, on Castlehill, is said to have been built variously by David I c.1141 (E S Armitage 1912 and Inverness official Guide 1957), or by Malcolm Canmore (11th century) (F R Fappie 1908 and OSA 1793). It has been occupied by Edward I, Bruce, James I, III, & IV, and in 1562 was attacked and razed by Mary, Queen of Scots. It was again almost destroyed by the Royalists in 1649, and was finally destroyed by Prince Charles Edward in 1746. Additions were made to it between 1508 and 1540. All that remains of the old castle is the well, discovered and restored in 1909, the stairway leading to Castle Street, and part of the old rampart wall between Castle Street and the Castle Hill itself. The present County buildings were built on the site in 1834-46 (Inverness Official Guide 1957 and G Eyre-Todd 1923). The original castle was a square tower (R Pococke 1760), and in the reign of George II, the site was transformed into a square by adding barracks on each side and a governor's house on the north side. There was also a chapel and other buildings on the south side of the castle.
F R Frappie 1908; OSA 1793; J Grahame 1831; J Anderson 1831; E S Armitage 1912; Inverness Official Guide 1957, G Eyre-Todd 1923; R Pococke 1760.

No trace of antiquity remains about the present buildings on Castlehill, except the well in the courtyard.
Visited by OS (W D J) 1 April 1960.

REFERENCE SRO:
Fortification.
Theodory Dury's report on what is required to put Inverness in a fit state for defence by the building of pallisades.

1690 GD 26/9/111

In the National Library of Scotland is a series of Military Maps and Drawings (many are coloured) of the Board of Ordnance and relating to the Works executed in the disturbed times of the 18th Century.
Included are the following relating to Fort George at Inverness:-
In Case or Volume, No. 1647:-
Number. Year.
Z.2/76. No date. "A Generall Survey of Inverness and the Country adjacent to the foot of Loch Ness". With Explanation and view of the Town. Scale 1500 Feet to a Inch. There are 2 copies.

Z.2/77. 1719 "Inverness". A survey of the Castle Anne 1719. With References. There is a small plan to scale of 200 Feet to an Inch, and Plans and Sections to scale of 40 Feet to an Inch.

Z.2/78 No date "Inverness in North Britain, by Brigdr Petite. Is a Plan of the Town, with the Castle Hill, and shewing Oliver's Fort. Scale 200 Feet to an Inch. There are 2 copies.

Z.2/82 1746 "Plan for building a Fort at Inverness on the Vestige of an Old Fort demolished 1746. With Profile and References. Scale for Plan 100 Feet to an Inch and for Profile 30 Feet to an Inch. There is a copy.

Z.2/83 1746 "A Plan of a New Fort design'd for Inverness, done exactly on the old lines of Olivers Fort; with the additional Outworks of Cover'd-Way, Lunettes & Glassis" With Explanation. Scale 100 Feet to an Inch. Also Sections and Profiles to scale of 10 Feet to an Inch. The Blocks are numbered, and both drawings are docketted as "Rec'd with Major Lewis Marcell's Report & Estimate dated 1746"

Z.2/79 1746 "Elevation of the Main Gate or Entrance on the Rampart to the Fortress". Docketted as "Received with Major Lewis Marcell's Report & Estimate for building a Fort at Inverness 1746".

Z.2/80 1746 "Plans Elevation and Section of one of the four long Piles of Barracks for Soldiers". Scale 15 Feet to an Inch. Docketted as last. Marked 9 on General Plan 2/83

Z.2/80 1746 "Plans Elevation and Section of the Officers and Soldiers Guard Rooms, Brewers, Stables, &c". Scale as last and docketted as last. Marked 7 & 8 on General Plan Z.2/83

Z.2/81 1746 "The Governeur's, Deputy Governeur's, Fort Major's & Store Keeper's Houses". Docketted as 2/79. Marked Nos 1 and 2 on the General Plan Z.2/83.

" " "Plans Elevation and Section of the Powder Magazine. Magazines for provisions, Baking Houses, &c". Scale and docket as before. Marked No. 3 on the General Plan.

" " "Plans Elevation and Section of the Arsenal & Armoury". Scale and docket as before. Marked No. 4 on General Plan

" " "Plans and Elevation and Section of the Hospital". Scale and docket as before. Marked No. 5 on the General Plan.

" " "Plans Elevation and Section of a Pile of Barracks for Soldiers. Scale and docket as before. Marked No. 6 on General Plan.

In Case or Volume, No.1646, are:-

Z.2/33. 1730 "A Plan and Section of Fort George with Part of the Town of Inverness, 1730". With Profile and with Explanation. Scale nearly 1 over 500. Bears the name J.Remer. There are 2 copies.

Z.2/34. 1732 "A Plan of Fort George & Part of the Town of Inverness, with propoer Sections relating to the Fort, surveyed and projected by John Remer, Anne 1732". With Elevations and Sections, and with Explanantion. Scale for General Plan 100 Feet to 1 Inch and two-twelfths, and for Sections 20 Feet to an Inch. There is a copy.

Z.2/35. 1739 "A Sketch of Fort George 1739", Inverness, shewing a breaching of the retaining Wall at River side. Marked as received from Captn Remer.

Z.2/36. 1750 "Plan of Fort George at Inverness shewing its present position 1750". With Explanation. Scale 20 Feet to an Inch. Surveyed and drawn by Chas. Tarrant, and signed W.Skinner. There is a copy.

Z.2/37. No date "Sections of Fort George, Inverness with part of the Town of Inverness". Scale 20 Feet to an Inch. Taken and drawn by Chas. Tarrant. Signed W.Skinner. There is one copy.

Z.2/38. No date "A Plan and Section of Fort George with part of the Town of Inverness". with a small Section, and with an Explanation. Sclae for Section 40 Feet to an Inch. No date, but considered prior to 1750.

There is also, in Case, or Volume, No.1646, this Drawing:-

Z.2/31. No date Small Plans of Fort William, Fort Augustus, and Fort George (Inverness), on the one sheet. This one is also indexed under Fort William and Fort Augustus.

REFERENCE: Scottish Record Office

The condition of the Castle of Inverness.
The Lord Advocate is averse to demolition in spite of the Castle going 'a complete ruin'. An interdict is passed to prevent the Duke of Gordon demolishing it. Meanwhile Mr Campbell is to inspect and report.
1777 GD 44/Sec 22/Bundle 31

Report on the condition of the Castle of Inverness.
Ilay Capbell suggests that the East Wing should remain as it was, as the people of Inverness think it ornamental.
1777 GD 44/Sec 22/Bundle 31

The removal of stone from the Old Castle and its ramparts.
A list of people of Inverness, guilty of carrying off the materials of the Castle with a note of what each person has built with what was taken.
1777 GD 44/Sec 22/ Bundle 31

Inverness. Painting of Inverness Castle.
Petitions to Queen Anne by George 4th Marquis of Huntly. narrates that the Garrison put into Inverness Castle after the Revolution in 1688 'defaced the painting of the castle which was done by Italian-masters at the sole expence of the Earls of Huntly'.
GD 44/22/31

Damage to the Castle by a Garrison of Foot [1688] 'The said Garrison without regard to any law civil or military first defaced the painting of the Castle which was done by Italian masters at the sole expense of the Earls [? Marquesses] of Huntly then tore down the wainscott lining of the rooms, pulled up the flooring and tho' of no use to themselves and tho' it required some labour too they cull the very Beams and Joists and With Great Iron Hammers broke down the steps of the Great Stair of the Castle tho' made of stone...'
Petition, Marquess of Huntly to Queen Anne
(ND) GD44/22/31/20

Upkeep of Inverness Castle
The Family of Gordon kept this Castle in great repair and were at considerable expense in decorating it with Italian Paintings and other ornaments suitable to their rank till about 1688 when the exigency of the times made it expedient for the government to take possession of this Fort'
Memorial for His Grace the Duke of Gordon
1777 GD44/22/31/5

Inverness. Repair of the Barracks and Castle of Inverness.
An Account of the expense.
ND [?1715] GD 220/6/1752/21

A rough Plan of the Castle of Inverness, with what ground can be taken in to make defences for a regiment of foot, consisting of 600 men.
ND [?1715] GD 220/6/1752/20

Removal of the stones of the Castle.
Peition to the Sheriff and complaint from the Magistrates against Capt. Alexander Godsman [The Duke of Gordon's Factor at Dunain] followed by a Summons for demolishing and taking away stone from the Castle.
1777 GD 128/6/2

Removal of the stones of the Castle.
In a Bill of Advocation the Duke of Gordon replied that after 1745 the Castle, having been blown up with gunpowder, was demolished. Since then it had been of little use except as a quarry. The inhabitants of Inverness had pilfered the stone so the Duke had ordered his Factor, Alexander Godsman, to use the stone to enclose the Duke's land adjooining the Castle.
1777 GD 128/6/2

Report on the condition and demolition of the Castle.
The Easter Gavell is reported to be in dangerous state but no more so than it was before the operation of digging by order of Alexander Godsman, the Duke of Gordon's Factor at Dunain. Robert Duncan in his report accepts that Godsman's method of taking down what remained of the Castle is the only safe one.
1783 GD 128/6/2

Inv/Culloden & Ardersier Local Plan, April 1994: P106/5.7.2. Listed Buildings. POLICY - 2.5.13 will apply.
J Aitken : 23/05/01.

See Report 838, Slide Library Numbers 6340-6345.
J Aitken : 09/07/02.

Castle built by David I possibly of motte and bailey type. <1>

The castle at Inverness dates from the period of William the Lion's ll79 campaign in the North and is in all likelihood a David I erection (Barrow, 1960, 44) Castle and burgh both had a stormy history in the middle ages. Captured by Bruce in 1308 (Barrow, 1965, 279), the castle was refurbished in 1362 when news of war was imminent, and was used for sheriff courts in the last half of the fourteenth century. Accounts for 1412-1415 in the Exchequer Rolls suggest that the Earl of Mar rebuilt the castle at Inverness, including turrets and a stone surrounding wall. In 1508 the third Earl of Huntly was given a commission as justiciar of the North and ordered to carry out improvements on the castle, including the construction of a hall, kitchen and chapel. This project was not, however, carried out until 1540 (Macdonald, 1895-1899, 278). Although garrisoned for a short time by Hanoverian troops after the '15, it was described by Captain Burt in 1735 as being ruinous. Jacobite rebels in 1746 blew up the castle. The present castellated structure on Castle Hill was built between 1843 and 1836. All that remains of the previous castles is a well, discovered in 1909, the stairway leading to Castle Street and part of the rampart wall between Castle Street and the Castle Hill itself (Ordnance Survey, Record Cards, Reference NH 64 NE 9). <2>

Mention of original Inverness Castle as a motte and bailey. <3>

A limited watching brief was carried out by S Farrell in 2002 during the excavation of a monument base as part of the terminus of the Great Glen Way. The turf and topsoil over an area of 2.5m to a depth of 0.7m was removed. No archaeological features or deposits were exposed. <4>

Martin Briscoe has submitted photographs of this site to the Highland HER Flickr group. <5>


Taylor, A, 02/2010, A Collection of Highland Buildings and Monuments (Image/Photograph(s)). SHG25366.


Sir John Sinclair (ed.), 1791-9, The statistical account of Scotland, drawn up from the communications of the ministers of the different parishes, Vol. 9, 632-3 (Text/Publication/Volume). SHG2606.


Grahame, J, 1831, 'Notice respecting Macbeth's Castle at Inverness', Archaeol Scot Vol. 3 1831, p.231-3, 231-3 (Text/Publication/Article). SHG1290.


Anderson, J, 1831, 'On the site of Macbeth's Castle at Inverness', Archaeol Scot Vol. 3 1831, p.234-44, 244 (Text/Publication/Article). SHG1329.


Kemp, D W (ed.), 1887, Tours in Scotland 1747, 1750, 1760, 103 (Text/Publication/Volume). SHG2624.


Frappie, F R, 1908, Castles & Keeps of Scotland, 80-2 (Text/Publication/Volume). SHG2222.


Armitage, E S, 1912, The early Norman castles of the British Isles, 321 (Text/Publication/Volume). SHG1921.


Eyre-Todd, G, 1923, Famous Scottish burghs: their romantic story, 199-201 (Text/Publication/Volume). SHG2175.


Anon, 1957, Inverness Official Guide, 18, 35 (Text/Publication/Volume). SHG1905.


Farrell, S., 2002, Report of Archaeological Watching Brief 18th April 2002: Inverness Castle, Highland (Text/Report/Fieldwork Report). SHG21711.


Farrell, S., 2002, View of excavation upon completion, facing E. (Image/Photograph(s)). SHG14157.


Farrell, S., 2002, View of excavation upon completion, facing NE. (Image/Photograph(s)). SHG14156.


Farrell, S., 2002, View of location of monument. (Image/Photograph(s)). SHG14155.


Farrell, S., 2002, View of site before commencement of work, facing S. (Image/Photograph(s)). SHG14152.


Farrell, S., 2002, View of site before commencement of work, facing S. (Image/Photograph(s)). SHG14153.


Farrell, S., 2002, View upon removal of turf and topsoil, facing E. (Image/Photograph(s)). SHG14154.


<1> Meldrum, E, 1975, Medieval castles and towerhouses, 145-6 (Text/Publication/Article). SHG3175.


<2> Gourlay, R. and Turner, A., 1977, Historic Inverness: the archaeological implications of development (Text/Report). SHG2278.


<3> Yeoman, P A, 1988, 'Mottes in Northeast Scotland', Scot Archaeol Rev Vol. 5 1988, p.125-33, 131, 132, no.109 (Text/Publication/Article). SHG1131.


<4> Briscoe, J M, 2008-11, Information and photographs of various sites submitted by Martin Briscoe, via Flickr (Image/Photograph(s)). SHG23810.

Sources/Archives (20)

Map

Location

Grid reference Centred NH 6664 4501 (113m by 270m)
Map sheet NH64NE
Civil Parish INVERNESS AND BONA
Geographical Area INVERNESS

Finds (0)

Related Monuments/Buildings (1)

Related Investigations/Events (1)

External Links (4)

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